“The (Israeli military) has struck dozens of Iranian military targets in Syria,” Israeli military spokesman Jonathan Conricus told journalists.
He said they targeted intelligence, logistics, storage and vehicles as well as the origin of the rockets.
A Syrian radar installation was destroyed in the attack, Syrian state news agency SANA cited a military source as saying.
“Air defences confronted tens of Israeli rockets and some of them reached their target and destroyed one of the radar sites,” it said.
Israel was accused of attacking an airbase near Homs province in April. In February, an Israeli F-16 fighter jet was shot down by the Syrian military while targeting what it called Iranian sites responsible for launching a drone into the occupied Golan Heights.
Israel has carried out more than a dozen strikes inside Syria in the past one year.
The two countries are still technically at war, although the border remained largely quiet for decades until 2011, when the Syrian conflict broke out.
Israeli military spokesman Conricus said that the Russians were informed prior to the attack. It is one of the largest Israeli military operations in recent years and the biggest against Iranian targets.
Moscow and Tehran are close allies of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, who has presided over a civil war for the past seven years. Over half a million Syrians have died and nearly half of the prewar population displaced.